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Control systems for spacecrafts and space vehicles

Operation of control system models embodied in different spacecrafts-modules

Spacecraft (module) name Begin the development of CS Injection and autonomous flight Docking Joint flight with orbital station
Cosmos-929 1970 July 1977    
Cosmos-1267 April 1981 March 1983 SALUTE - 6
Cosmos-1443 March 1983 March 1983 SALUTE - 7
Cosmos-1686 September 1985 November 1985 SALUTE - 7
QUANTUM March 1987 March 1987 MIR
QUANTUM- 2 1985 May 1990 June 1990 MIR
CRYSTAL May 1990 June 1990 MIR
SPECTRUM May 1995 May 1995 MIR
NATURE April 1996 April 1996 MIR
Functional and cargo unit ZARYA (Aurore) 1994 November 1998 August 2000 ISS ALPHA (FCU+NODE1)
General-purpose docking module 2001 2001 ISS ALPHA
Docking store module 2002 2002 ISS ALPHA
Supply and cargo spacecrafts Once a year from 2002 ISS ALPHA

Performance data of control system (CS) for supply spacecrafts-module (SSM) and functional and cargo unit(FCU)

Peculiarity:

  • CS is installed in power unit FCU that is the first component of the ISS ALPHA;
  • FCU CS is a modification of basal control system which was qualified completely during preparation and mission of modules QUANTUM-2, CRYSTAL, SPECTRUM and NATURE. Development chronology-19941997.
  • Performance data of the CS for FCU is in accordance of those for the SSM. In addition the FCU CS will provide the specified spatial orientation during docking to FCU of the rendez -vous module NODE1 Unity delivered by re-used spacecraft SHUTTLE as well as the orientation of joint structure FCU+NODE1 during direct docking of SHUTTLE the next time;
  • This CS can be used to construct other components of the ISS ALPHA. To expand the CS functionality and to upgrade its performance it can be supplemented with additional HW and SW. Such modification will provide combined operation of FCU CS and CS of other ISS components as well as the operation of ISS different configurations during its assembling and operation.

Ability

  • pre-launch preparation in automatic mode;
  • spatial orientation and stabilization;
  • orbital maneuvering (orbits altitude correction included);
  • docking to the orbital station in automatic mode;
  • keeping of spatial orientation for new-formed structure (after docking);
  • driving components of the spacecrafts adjacent systems (main engine, steering devices, pyro-tools etc.);
  • functional control of own operational status and self-reconfiguration for fail-tolerant operation during all mission phases.

Detailed performance data:

  • For SSM:

    - Spatial orientation accuracy, deg. better than 1;
    - Keeping orientation accuracy, ang. min 3090;

  • For joint structure FCU+NODE1:

    - Accuracy of spatial orientation in orbital frame system, ang. min better than 60;
    - Accuracy of the thrust manoeuvre at SSM/FCU injection, m/s, 0,050,2;

  • Duration of active life, years till 5;
  • Power consumption in different flight modes, wt:

    - average 400;
    - maximum 900;

  • Environment temperature condition, ( oC) +5+35.

Control system for space vehicle S ( Antomatically Controlled Orbital Station )

Control system provides spatial orientation and stabilization of space vehicle which is intended for exploration of Sun. This system can be used for various spacecrafts or satellites which operation needs sun orentation.

Ability:

  • space vehicles angular rate quenching after separation from launcher;
  • space vehicles reference axis orientation in direction to geometric centre of Sun;
  • putting the space vehicle into spin-stabilized state followed the CS disabling;
  • control of own operational status, self-reconfiguration for fail-tolerant operation, diagnostics and telemetry.

Performance data:

  • spatial orienation accuracy, ang. min < 10;
  • stabilization angular rate, deg/S < 0,005;
  • spinning, deg/S 1,0;
  • duration of active life, years 1;
  • power consumption in different flight modes, wt:

    - day-average 360;
    - maximum 900;

  • environment temperature condition, C 5 35.

Control system for spacecraft 716

SC 716 is orbital segment of the universal system "Oko-1" for Earth observation (Russia).
Rocket and space complex and spacecrafts 716 of this system were developed by RPO named after S.A. Lavochkin.
Since the year 1991 seven SCs were injected into geo-stationary orbit by LV Proton with boosting stage.

Name Product Date of launch
Kosmos-2133 No.7120 14.02.1991
Kosmos-2224 No.7121 18.12.1992
Kosmos-2282 No.7123 07.07.1994
Kosmos-2350 No.7122 29.04.1998
Kosmos-2379 No.7124 25.08.2001
Kosmos-2397 No.7126 24.04.2003
Kosmos-2440 No.7127 27.06.2008
Kosmos-2479 No.7128 30.03.2012

Satellite characteristics:

  • mass 2600 kg,
  • operation life 5-7 years.

The satellite is equipped by IR-telescope with diameter of main mirror of 1 m. Length of blend is 4,5 m.

Control system allows to solve the following tasks:

  • damping of initial angular rates and building of single-axis orientation on Sun;
  • building of three-axis basic orientation on Earth;
  • precision orientation in phases of implementation of target task;
  • correction of orbit;
  • checking and diagnosis of equipment with automatic parrying of failures.

Control system characteristics:

  • accuracy of orientation no worse than 8 min of arc,
  • angular rate of stabilization no more than 0,0001 deg/s.

Control system for space vehicle Coupon

CS is intended to control satellite of COUPON family that form space segment of satellite tele- and data communications system ( STDCS ) BANKER. This STDCS consist of satellite onboard retransmitters and local ground communications terminals formed ground segment.
Just thanks to CS capability onboard retransmitters are equipped with active phase array antennae with electronic adjustment. This quality allows to obtain onboard antennae precise pointing toward ground terminals and their extent spotting. Thereby ground terminals antennae dont require satellite tracking.

Functionality:

  • satellites angular rate quenching after separation from launchers space stage;
  • satellites initial orientation;
  • three-axis inertial frame based satellites specified orientation holding;
  • keeping the precise orientation by means of electro-fly- wheel final control elements and small draught jet engines;
  • satellites orbit correction to hold subsatellite point;
  • built-in check / diagnostics and telemetry;
  • in-line own operational status monitoring during mission and automatic faults consequence avoidance, without aim operation interrupting;
  • CS reconfiguration by means of mission data modification.

Detailed performance data:

  • predicted values of satellite orientation accuracy in the direction to:

    - Polaris - not worst than 7 ang. min;
    - Sun - not worst than 8 ang. min;
    - The Earth - not worst than 10 ang. min.

  • angular stabilization error in relation to 60 S time interval average:

    -around longitudal axis - not worst than 50 ang. sec;
    -around other axises - not worst than 8 ang. sec;

  • duration of active life not less than 5 years;
  • power consumption in flight modes:

    - average - 360 Wt;
    - maximum - 900 Wt.


Control system for spacecraft "Arkon"

"Arkon" is a highly maneuverable SC for the system of Earth operative observation..
Prime developer is RPO named after S.A. Lavochkin (Russia).
Into elliptical orbit (with altitude 1500-2800 km) and near-circular orbit (with altitude 1500-1800 km) by LV Proton with boosting stage it was injected the SC:

  • Kosmos-2344 in 1997,
  • Kosmos-2392 in 2002.

mass 500 .
The optoelectronic devices installed on the SC allow to obtain digital pictures with resolution of 1 m.

Control system allows to solve the following tasks:

  • damping of initial angular rates and building of single-axis orientation on Sun;
  • building of three-axis basic orientation on Earth and programmed inertial orientation;
  • angular maneuvers and precision orientation in phases of implementation of target task;
  • correction of orbit;
  • calibration of meters of angular rate;
  • checking and diagnosis of equipment with automatic parrying of failures.

Control system characteristics:

  • accuracy of orientation no worse than 2 min of arc,
  • angular rate of stabilization no more than 0,0002 deg/s.

Control system for satellite "Egyptsat-1"

Satellite "Egyptsat-1" is orbital segment of the complex for Earth remote sensing. This satellite is developed by state-owned enterprise DB "Yuzhnoe" for the order by Egypt. The control system is together developed with RPE "Hartron-Ukom".
On 17.04.2007 satellite "Egyptsat-1" was injected by launch-vehicle "Dnepr" into circular sun-synchronous orbit with parameters: 'Egyptsat-1'.

  • altitude ~670 km,
  • inclination ~98 deg,
  • period 98,0 min.

Satellite characteristics:

  • mass 160 kg,
  • operation life 3 years.

Satellite is equipped with following:

  • optoelectronic devices for observation:

    - multi-spectral and panchromatic polyzonal scanner with resolution 8 m
    and width of view ~ 50 km,
    -middle-infrared scanner with width of view ~ 55 km,

  • e-mail hardware for reception/transmission of messages for subscribers to ground terminals.

Control system allows to solve the following tasks:

  • damping of initial angular rates and building of orbital orientation;
  • SC pointing to a given area of surveying on Earth's surface;
  • implementation of a given control program by equipment installed on SC;
  • solution of navigation task using information from GPS;
  • checking and diagnosis of equipment with automatic switching to stand-by equipment;
  • reception and decoding of instructions from ground control complex;
  • transmission of information from SC to ground control complex and ground station for reception of information.

Control system characteristics:

  • accuracy of satellite orientation during pointing to surveying area no worse than 0,2 deg,
  • angular rate of stabilization during survey no more than 0,005 deg/s,
  • accuracy of satellite orientation in on-duty mode between surveys no worse than 5 deg,
  • angular rate of stabilization in on-duty mode between surveys no more than 0,01 deg/s,
  • duration of angular maneuver over angle ± 35 deg 60-80 s,
  • mass about 34,0 kg,
  • power consumption about 65,0 Watt.


Control system for satellite S-2-8

Satellite S-2-8 orbital segment of the complex "Sich-2", for Earth remote sensing developed for Ukraine.
The complex is intended for obtaining information about:

  • crises situations (fires, floods, accidents, catastrophes);
  • condition of land (vegetative cover, soil covering);
  • deposits of minerals and natural resources;
  • traffic streams, traffic congestion and etc.

Such information is used for solution of practical and scientific tasks on regional level and local level for resources control, planning, creation of digital maps.
This satellite is developed by state-owned enterprise DB "Yuzhnoe", the control system is together developed with RPE Hartron-Ukom.
On 17.08.2011 satellite MS-2-8 was injected by launch-vehicle Dnepr into circular sun-synchronous orbit with parameters:
'-2-8'.

Parameters of orbit:

  • type circular sun-synchronous orbit
  • altitude ~670 km,
  • inclination ~98 deg,
  • period 98,0 min.

Satellite characteristics:

  • mass 169 kg,
  • operation life 5 years.

Satellite is equipped with following:

  • optoelectronic devices for observation:

    multi-spectral and panchromatic polyzonal scanner with resolution 8 m and width of view ~ 50 km,
    middle-infrared scanner with width of view ~ 55 km

  • scientific equipment "Potential".

Control system for satellite Microsat

Satellite Microsat is intended for scientific and technological tasks, for testing the Strapdown Astroinertial Block (SAIB) developed by RPE Hartron-Arkos and the Small-sized Astromeasuring System (SAMS) developed by State-owned Enterprise Arsenal (Kiev).
Scheduled date of Microsat satellite injection is 2014. Launch is planned with first launch-vehicle Cyclon-4 launch from the Brazilian Alkantara cosmodrome.

Parameters of orbit:

  • type circular sun-synchronous orbit
  • altitude ~675 km,
  • inclination ~98 deg,
  • period 98,0 min.

Satellite characteristics:

  • mass 195 kg,
  • operation life 3 years.

Satellite is equipped with ammoniac propulsion system for orbit correction.

Control system allows to solve the following tasks:

  • damping of initial angular rates and building of orbital orientation,
  • orbital orientation of satellite during all term of active existence (operation mode),
  • orbital orientation of satellite during time of the ammoniac propulsion system work at the change of orbit parameters,
  • indication of satellite motion parameters (indication mode),
  • realization of the set management program by the equipment, satellite is equipped, including ammoniac propulsion system management,
  • realization of devices control and diagnostics with switching on reserve,
  • reception and decoding of instructions from ground control complex,
  • transmission of information from satellite to ground control complex and ground station for reception of information.

Control system characteristics:

  • accuracy of orbital satellite orientation no worse than 5,0 deg,
  • angular rate of stabilization no more than 0,01 deg/s,
  • accuracy of orbital satellite orientation in operation and indication modes on the lighted up areas of orbit no worse than 2 deg, on the unlighted up - 5,0 deg,
  • angular rate of stabilization in operation and indication modes no more than 0,01 deg/s,
  • mass about 25,0 kg,
  • power consumption about 45,0 Watt.